It is state of physical, mental, and social fitness to lead a responsible safe and satisfying reproductive life.
The phenomenon of limiting the size of the family through prevention of some pregnancies and spacing out the birth of the children is called fertility control. Prevention of pregnancy are called contraception. The technique used I preventing the occurrence of pregnancy are called contraceptive device.
(i)Condom: It is tubular latex sheath which worn over the male copulatory organ or penis during sex or coitus. Another benefit is protection of individuals from sexually transmitted diseases.
(ii)Cervical Cap: It is rubber nipple that is fitted over the cervix.
(iii)Diaphragm: It is tubular rubber sheath with flexible metal or spring ring at the margin which is fitted inside vagina.
Fig: Diapghram contraceptive
(iv)Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices (UCD):They are devices made of plastic, metal or a combination of the two which when inserted into uterus prevent insemination by destroying sperms and preventing their passage into follepian tube
e.g: copper-T, multiload 375
Fig ; copper-T
Hormone Methods of Contraception
They are generally used by women for suppressing the production of ovum through inhibition of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
(i)Oral pills : They contain progesterone with or without estrogen. Simply we can say it is a combination of gonadotrophins hormone.
(ii)Implants: They are subdermal devices which provide long term contraception, e.g: norplant.
Chemical method of Contraception
(i)Vasectomy: The two vasa deferentia of the male are blocked by cutting a small piece and tying the rest , this prevents passage of sperms from testes into semen.
(ii)Tubectomy: A portion of both the fallopian tubes is excised or ligated to block the passage of ovum.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)
It is group of infections caused by different types of pathogens that are transmitted by sexual contact between a healthy person and an infected person. The sexually transmitted diseases are also called venereal diseases
(i)Gonorrhoea: It is caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhoea spreads through sexual contact, common toilets and under clothes It causes pus containing discharge, pain around genitalia and burning sensation during urination. Effective medicine is ampicillin.
(ii) Syphilis: The disease is caused by corkscrew like bacterium Treponema pallidum. It spreads through sexual contact and from mother to infants, Painless ulcer on genitalia and swelling of
Lymph glands occur in first stage. In second stage skin lesions, rashes and hair loss occur
Effective medicine is tetracycline.
(iii)Genital Warts: The disease is due to Human Papilloma virus (HPV). Hard benign outgrowths called warts appear over external genitalia and perianal area. In women infection may enter vagina and cervix causing acute pain
(iv)AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. The virus is transmitted through sexual contact, blood contact ( by using common needles, syringes, razors etc). the method used to test AIDS is known as ELISA test.
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